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Experimental Techniques and Sample 33 Polaritons are coherent superpositions of excitons and photons. Their lifetime is an effective one resulting from an interplay between the individual photonic and excitonic parts. As the photon lifetime (~1 psec) is three orders of magnitude below the exciton lifetime (~1 nsec), it is the one that mainly contributes to the polariton lifetime, here being ~3 psec. The first reflectivity minimum after the stopband at the high energy side is located at 695 nm and is used for the non-resonant excitation.

The splitting between the upper (UP) and lower polaritons (LP) is related to the Rabi frequency adjusted by the detuning. Here a splitting of 26 meV for zero detuning was used. (d), (e), and (f) Hopfield coefficients indicating the photonic and excitonic part of polaritons for three exciton-photon detunings: δ = +13 meV, 0 meV, and –13 meV, respectively. At k// = 0 and zero detuning, lower polaritons are half photonic – half excitonic quasiparticles. Positive detuning makes lower polaritons more exciton-like whereas negative detuning make polaritons more photon-like.

5 Off-axis digital holography Interferometric measurements have proved an extremely powerful tool for the evaluation of the degree of coherence in the emitted luminescence and, consequently, the evaluation of the condensate fraction. It is actually more powerful than that. The mere interference pattern also contains information on the phase of the interfering beams and can, consequently, provide access to the condensate wavefunction phase. A widely used method for the extraction of the phase of an interference pattern is the so called (off-axis) digital holography, widely used for optical metrology purposes [53].

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A Brief History of Particle Physics (In Tables)


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